American  Beech (Fagus Grandifolia)

A pale cream color, this wood has an overall good workability. It machines, glues and finishes well. Uses are lumber, flooring, crates, pallets, rail ties, musical instruments, furniture.

Buckeye (Aesculus)

Buckeye is one of the softest and lightest hardwoods in the U.S. It has creamy white heartwood and sapwood both, often with grayish streaks. Buckeye has a fine even texture that is generally easy to work but is not typically used for lumber due to low strength and bland appearance which generally limit this species to utility wood, boxes, crates, pulpwood. 

Sassafras (Sassafras albidum)

Medium to light brown heartwood, sometimes with an orange hue. Sapwood is a paler yellowish brown and tends to darken with age. Works easily with hand or machine tools, glues, stains and finishes well. Has a distinct spicy scent while being worked. Used in lumber, fence posts, boatbuilding and furniture.

Black Cherry (Prunus Serotina)

The heartwood of cherry varies from rich red to reddish brown and will darken with age and exposure to light. The sapwood is creamy white. Cherry is easy to machine, nail, glue, screw and when sanded produces an excellent smooth finish. Used in fine furniture, cabinets, moulding, flooring, doors, boat interiors, musical instruments, turnings and carvings.

Elm (Ulmus Americana)

Reddish brown heartwood with a paler sapwood. Can be a challenge to work with, somewhat fuzzy surface. Main uses are boxes, baskets, furniture, pulp and paper making.

Red Oak (Quercus Rubra)

The sapwood of red oak is light brown with the heartwood a pinkish reddish brown. It machines well, nails, screws, (pre-boring recommended) glues. It is a hard, heavy wood with great wear resistance. The oaks have been key in America’s industrial transformation providing rail ties, wheels, plows, looms, and of course furniture and flooring.

Hard Maple (Acer Saccharum)

Sapwood is creamy white, heartwood is light reddish brown. Pre-boring is recommended when nailing and screwing. It machines well and produces outstanding finishes. It is a hard, heavy wood with a high resistance to abrasion and wear. Main uses are flooring, furniture, gymnasium floors, cabinets, table tops, stairs, handrails, mouldings, and cutting boards as it imparts no taste to food.

Butternut (Juglans cinerea)

Also called white walnut, has light tan heartwood with pale yellowish sapwood. Easily worked by hand or machine. Glues, stains and finishes well. Common uses are veneer, carving, furniture, trim, boxes and crates.

Black Walnut (Juglans Nigra)

The sapwood of walnut is creamy white, while the heartwood is a chocolate brown. Walnut is a medium density wood that works easily with tools. It nails, screws, and glues well and can be polished to an exceptional finish. Main uses are furniture, cabinets, millwork, doors, floors, gunstocks.

White Oak (Quercus Alba)

White Oak is light tan to dark brown in color. It machines well, nails and screws well (although pre-boring is advised) and can be stained with a wide range of finishes. It is impervious to liquids making it  ideal for outdoor applications and has been used extensively for ship timbers, barrels and casks. Main uses are furniture, flooring, millwork, mouldings, doors, cabinets, barrel staves and casks.

Yellow Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera)

Sapwood is creamy white, heartwood is brown to olive green which can darken with exposure to light. A highly versatile wood that is easy to machine, glue and bore. It takes paints exceptionally well and is quite often stained to substitute for more expensive woods. A medium density wood, main uses are light construction, furniture, cabinets, musical instruments, barn siding, turnings and carvings. 

Red Maple (Acer Rubrum) 

Also known as soft maple, the sapwood is grayish white, the heartwood various shades of reddish brown.  Soft maple is only about 25% less hard than hard maple and is often used as a substitute. It also machines, glues, screws, glues, well and produces excellent finishes. Main uses are furniture, paneling, cabinets, mouldings, doors. Charcoal is often made from soft maple.

Basswood (Tilia Americana)

A light and soft wood, the sapwood of Basswood is creamy white in color with a pale reddish brown heartwood. It machines well and is relatively easy to work with hand tools making it a premier carving wood. Main uses are carvings, turnings, furniture, pattern-making, musical instruments, blinds and shutters.


Is similar to maple with a fine even texture. Sapwood is light tan while heartwood is reddish brown. Works easily with tools, though the interlocking grain can be a problem. Turns, glues and finishes well. Common uses are plywood, pallets, crates, flooring, pulpwood. 

Hickory (Carya)

Sapwood is white, tinged with fine brown lines. Heartwood is pale to reddish brown. The contrasting colors of this wood are absolutely beautiful in kitchen cabinets and flooring. Hickory is the hardest, heaviest, strongest American wood. It can be difficult to machine and glue and pre-boring is advised for nails and screws. Main uses are tool handles, furniture, cabinets, flooring, wooden ladders, dowels and sporting goods. Sawdust and chips are used to smoke meats. Although relatively hard to work with compared to other hardwoods, the rewards can be great.

Ambrosia Maple

Much like Spalted Maple and other forms of figured Maple, Ambrosia Maple is technically not it’s own species. It is a general reference to the Ambrosia beetle that has introduced fungus into the wood causing the unusual discoloration. It is considered a decorative feature that brings character to the wood.